The Yi language and the “Red Fish Girl” August 8, 2012Posted by mikeopper in China, Individual Fellowship.
Early during my stay at Yunnan University, my colleague Prof. Liquan Yang gave me over sixty yuyan jianzhi or “Basic Outlines of Languages”. As I noted in an earlier post, I have been browsing these texts for theory-enhancing linguistic phenomena. After several days of browsing, I finally stumbled upon relevant data from the Loloish languages. The Loloish languages spoken in China include Yi, Hani, Jinuo, Lisu, and Lahu. Yi is the most commonly spoken of these languages with roughly six million speakers. Since Kunming city has over 400,000 Yi speakers, I set off to find a Yi speaker and begin collecting data.
A dean of Yunnan University helped me arrange meetings with two Yi speakers, both of which are scholars of the Yi language. The first scholar I met is Dr. Xuewang Pu. In addition to being an advisor to Master’s degree students, Dr. Pu is a member of the committee for Yunnan Minority groups. He has published a Chinese translation of a Yi folk poem called Ngo ne zi nye jye or “The Red Fish Girl” into a popular novel which he has given me as a gift. The second scholar I met with is Prof. Decai Zhou. Prof. Zhou teaches Yi language and culture at Yunnan University of Nationalities. Both Dr. Pu and Prof. Zhou are from Xinping County which is three hours south of Kunming city by bus. The Yi language spoken in Xinping is a dialect of Southern Yi.
The Yi ethnicity speaks at least six mutually-unintelligible languages. Many words across these languages are clearly related, but for the most part, the spoken varieties differ so much that they cannot be the same language. Consider the sound systems of two varieties, for instance. Northern Yi (spoken in Sichuan) has four tones while Southern Yi (spoken in Yunnan) has only three. Examples of words in all three tones of Southern Yi are provided in the table below.
|1 – High Level||mō ‘bamboo’|
|2 – Mid Level||mo ‘horse’|
|3 – Low Level||mò ‘mother’|
Through these meetings my language consultants have taught me a few words and phrases of their language. Additionally, since both of my consultants are scholars of Yi, they have provided me with some fascinating information about the history of the Yi written language. Yi is one of the oldest written minority languages in Yunnan province. The oldest recoverable texts were written in the late fifteenth century with a script containing roughly two thousand characters. Texts in this script can be recovered all over Southwest China where the Yi peoples live. Modern Yi is written with a different script which utilizes 756 symbols, each of which represents a single syllable.
I will conclude this blog post with a note about establishing academic connections with Chinese universities. For my entire stay at Yunnan University, scholars at the local universities have been happy to meet with me. If I show interest in their work, they may even invite me out for coffee or lunch for discussion. However, there are two obstacles impeding establishing my affiliation for long-term dissertation research. First, the internet culture is not the same at Chinese universities as it is at American universities such as U of M. Faculty members seldom check their e-mail and typically lack useful webpages with contact information. Everything needs to be done in person, either by paying a visit to a faculty member’s office or having another contact (usually another faculty member) arrange a meeting for you. Second, there is a good deal of legal paperwork necessary to establish these connections. To get a formal invitation letter, one needs to submit a research proposal (entirely written in Chinese, I should add), get it approved by a faculty member, and then formally stamped by a university authority. In China, it seems formal paperwork with red stamps indicating approval by some authority is necessary for just about everything. In my experiences over the years, I’ve needed formal stamps of approval to be a camp counselor, enroll in Chinese language classes, register with the police for subletting an apartment, and even to purchase a subway card.